Saturday, February 8, 2020

Microsoft Management Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Microsoft Management - Term Paper Example This company has helped to alter the living, working, and recreational behavior of hundreds of millions of public around the world (History, 2000). Additionally, Microsoft entered the operating system (OS) business in 1980 with its own version of UNIX, called Xenix. However, Disk Operating System (DOS) ultimately proved the company's dominant power. After the breakdown of the discussion with Digital Research, IBM granted the contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M operating system. It was set to be utilized in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC). By December 1982, Microsoft approved DOS to 50 additional manufacturers. Millions of IBM "clones" were being sold, and were powered by MS-DOS. Soon after, in 1983, the Graphical User Interface (GUI), which facilitates representation of computer programs and files through icons and other graphics on the screen of the computer, was launched. The success of MS-DOS led to invention of a new operat ion system OS/2 in 1984 and also release of Microsoft Windows (United States Securities And Exchange Commission, 2011). Subsequently, Microsoft introduced its Office collection, ‘Microsoft Office’, in 1990. The software bundled distinct office use applications, such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. As the early versions of Windows were unsuccessful, so Windows 3.0 was launched with an efficient graphics user interface and superior ‘protected mode capability’ for the Intel processor. This idea made both MS Office and MS Windows foremost in their respective areas. The company also diverted into software applications, by creation of certain programs that allow computers to perform specific tasks, such as word processing and spreadsheets. It also began producing Compact Disk--Read Only Memory (CD-ROMs) (United States Securities And Exchange Commission, 2011). In the year 1995, Microsoft redefined its assistance and extended its products into ‘networ king’ along with the ‘World Wide Web’ and also with ‘Windows 95’. Windows 95 was an entirely innovative user interface with a narrative start button. It also provided 32-bit compatibility as well as the MSN, an online service, and Internet Explorer for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), a web browser. In 1998, Microsoft enjoyed its monopoly in the field of operating systems. Moreover, by 2001, Microsoft established Windows XP. It became very successful and also acquired a reputed position in the market. In 2004, new version of Windows XP was developed and later in 2007, Windows Vista and Microsoft Office 2007 came into existence (History, 2000). Thus, it can be stated that Microsoft, with its immense inventions marked its path as an industrial giant. Empowerment Human Resource Management (HRM) includes the administration of people in an organization in order to form a collective relationship between management and employees. This appro ach focuses on the proper functioning of the organization. Human resource management includes various processes such as work force planning, training and development, empowerment and employee appraisal among others (Mathis & Jackson, 2010). Empowerment is a part

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Drugs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Drugs - Essay Example Further the report states that prolonged drug abuse can lead to participation in crime. Most crimes are committed when the criminal in under the influence of drugs or needs funds for drugs. College students remain vulnerable because of crime which is perpetrated under the influence of drugs. Half of the sexual assaults that occur on campus are by people influenced by drugs. Drugs have known to change the personality of people as normal and calm people can become irrational under the influence. This paper analyzes the psychological and sociological basis of drug abuse. Sociology attempts to answer the phenomenon of drug abuse by using three perspectives. The first theory is known as the conflict perspective which states that society is a continuous state of change which results in competition. Another perspective is that of functionalism which says that society consists of segments which are linked with each other and serve a function (Campo, 2005). The final perspective of sociology is about symbolic interactionism which studies about the affect of society on the individual. The conflict theory postulates that drug abuse is more rampant in poor areas because marginalized communities do not have legitimate means to earn money. They are forced to sell drugs to earn a good living. The functional theory believes that drug abuse occurs because they provide an escape for people who cannot cope with the harsh realities of life. Drug abuse creates jobs for people who do not have the necessary skills required in a legal work force. Symbolic interactionist s believe that an individual may become a drug abuser because of labels which denied them the opportunities. The individual in this case had to resort to drugs to survive. Conflict theory further states that drug abuse creates opportunities for lawmakers to exploit the poor (Devlin, 2006). Functionalists would point out that drug abuse creates more jobs for people in the field of law enforcement. It also creates

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Complete and Utter Idiots Guide to Sending an Email Essay Example for Free

Complete and Utter Idiots Guide to Sending an Email Essay This may seem like a completely impossible task, but trust me, it’s easy. An everyday completely normal task for most people, but you are not most people, are you? Well, there’s one thing you must do. We are assuming you already own a computer and have an email, so the first thing that is vital in this†¦ find your computer. I know! You have to get up, use those long things on the end of your body made for walking, and look. No†¦ that’s the telly. We are looking for something that looks like a smaller telly with a keyboard and a mouse. No, no, no! Not a real mouse! Now get down from your sofa and look for a screen. Yes, that’s it! Gosh, if it takes you this long to find your computer this is going to be a long day. Congratulations! Now, as you are looking at the computer, sit down on the chair in front of it. Sit on the seat, not the top, bottom or legs, on the actually seat. Yes, that’s a bit more comfy isn’t it? I hope your computer is in fully working order? Supposing that it is, you need to find a big button that turns your computer on. No, that opens up the CD drive. Don’t push it back in! Press the button again so you don’t break it. Oh my, look! It’s right in front of you on that big box. Woohoo! You found it, now login using your password that you thought up so you would remember it. Yes, it is the word written on the sticky note stuck to the wall above you. Now, the long oblong in front of you, that’s your keyboard. No, an oblong is another word for a rectangle†¦ a long square? Yes, the thing with the buttons. Now, press the buttons with the letters/numbers/punctuation that are identical to the ones written on your sheet. Yes, you have to write them in the same order, otherwise itswrong. Thank the lord, you’ve logged on! You’ve just achieved something in your life! Be proud, be very, very proud. The next ‘impossible’ task you have to face is finding the internet icon and using your mouse to click on it. We have already established that this is not a real mouse, so calm down. Now, your computer screen will generally look like this: This may look big and scary but it’s simple really, if you just listen. As you probably don’t know, there are different types of internet service providers. The most common one is internet explorer which is automatically downloaded onto most computers. So we will just stick with that one. The symbol is a blue E. found it? No, that’s not it†¦ yes, the blue E. Good.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Appropriateness Of Tesco Enterprises Information Systems Information Technology Essay

Appropriateness Of Tesco Enterprises Information Systems Information Technology Essay The world is fast becoming a global village. The systems used to collect informations yesterday are different from those used today. More advanced and competitive information system are being produce everyday. Every business no matter how small, like a small retailer store, depends on high technology to store data. To them now it is a living tool and the still keep their doors open to welcome new form of change in information systems. Information system has now become the bread of life in every organizational operation. This paper is going to expatiate more on how information system operates to enhance business in our world today. Tesco enterprise will be use as the yard stick to better understand the development of Information systems. Findings 2.1 Information Systems. Definition. According to Kenneth and Jane Laudon, Information systems can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect to retrieve process, stores, distributes information to support decision making and control on an organization. Information systems are the systems of persons, data records and activities that process the data of information in a given organization, either through manual processes or automated processes. This system is consist of people, procedures, softwares, hardwares and data that helps in effective decision making. Philip Kotler says A marketing information system consist of people, equipments and procedures to gather, sort and analyze, evaluate and distribute needed, timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers. According to Erik BOHLIN, Stranford L. LEVIN, Nakil SUNG, Chang-HO YOON (2004), the effect of information technology systems on globalization, innovation, growth and productivity are immense. Information technology system has contributed immensely to the globalization of production and capital markets by reducing cost of information and communication. They stated that technology has made it easier for multinationals and other companies to spread production facilities all over the world, to coordinate international marketing campaigns and to ease collaboration in projects taking place in different continents. There are various types of information systems such as Office Information system, database management system, Decision supporting system and transaction processing system. Information systems are normally created to perform task for which the human brain can not handle well enough some of these task are controlling many business processes simultaneously, performing complex calculations and storing large amount of information. Many businesses invest huge amounts of money in information systems for the following reasons; For rapid production of goods and services To develop excellent and effective communication skills. Improve decision making Have operational excellence For competitives advantages For survival Customer and supplier intimacy. It saves time and money and makes life easy and comfortable. Levels of management. There are three hierarchical levels of management on an organization; the senior level management, the middle level management and the operational level of management. Senior Level Management. This is the highest level of management. They are concern with making good and effective decisions for the development of the enterprise. They supply answers to questions about the long term plans of the company such as what kind of products will the company be producing in the next five years or what method will they apply to improve their business. There are many kinds of information systems that managers at this level can use in order to ease the work and quickly too, some of the systems are seen as follows: Executive Support System. (ESS) It is a reporting software which helps senior managers transform data into useful summarize reports. It allows them quick assess to reports coming from different levels and different departments in the company such as staffing, billing, cost allocation, scheduling and many others. ESS is most useful to senior managers like Chief Executive Officers in order to enable the make decision easily. ESS forecast the future. ESS relies highly on information MIS and DSS database for decision making. It can not work in isolation less the company becomes dysfunctional. Middle Management. The main duty of the managers at this level is to monitor the activities of the subordinates, collect information from junior management and reassemble them and give the feedbacks or report to those at the senior management team. Their reports help in strategic planning thus leading to effective decision making to achieve their objectives. They are responsible for implementing the senior managers policies and plans to the workers. They also need to ensure that employees are well motivated and should act responsibly in maintaining company values. Management Information System (MIS) This system is meant to serve mostly middle managers. It helps them regulate the various operations in an organization. It helps in the internal control procedures. MIS are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operation activities in the organization. OBrien, J (1999). MIS as a system : It is a system that makes available the right information to the right person (senior managers) at the right time, place, form and at the right cost. It monitors daily sales, profit and lost accounts. It gathers feedbacks and current reports. It also answers all day to day questions about the company. Inputs of MIS: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), this a process created to handle the companys relationship or contact with its customers. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). This is a system that helps managers coordinate all the resources information and functions of a business. Transaction Process Management (TPS). It records all daily routines in a company. Recommended softwares for MIS: Database retrieve application Service control manager- a component of Microsoft Windows operating System. Software Configuration Management (SCM) used to track down and control changes in softwares. Decision Support System (DSS). It a group of information systems that support businesses and organizations in decision making activities. It helps most the middle class managers to make quick and effective decisions. It helps middle managers compile important information from a combination of business models, raw data, personal knowledge or documents to solve problems and then take decisions. Functions of DSS. It helps to solve unpredicted problems such as non-routine issues. Deducts external information like price change, government change in tax. It gathers and inventory of current information assets including legacy, dataware house and data marts. It produces comparative sales figures different periods. Finally it presents revenue figures base on new products sales assumptions. Fundamental Components. Knowledge base User interface The model ( decision content and user criteria). Holsapple and Whinston (1996) classify DSS in to six frame works Text-oriented DSS Database-oriented DSS Spreadsheet-oriented DSS Solver-oriented DSS Rule-oriented DSS Compound-oriented DSS DSS support base system can be divided into three categories; Personal support Group support Organization support First line managers as operational managers. They control the day to day services in an organization. They focus on manageing the processes to produce and distribute products and services to customers. Transaction Process System. This system serves the operational level managers. It helps them trace the daily routine in the company for example sales entry and delivery. It also helps the managers to monitor status of operations in relation to external environment. 3. Appropriateness of TESCO Enterprise Information Systems. TESCO plc is Britains largest retailer enterprise. Tesco provides grocery homeshopping services, consumer goods, telecommunication and financial services online. Online shopping is a highly use information system in Tesco. This information system is the direct buying of goods and services over the internet or other computer networks. Through this system, many businesses have developed due to online competition services. There are other websites besides Tesco that offer hosting services for online stores and small retailers these are Yahoo, and eBay. A collection of online stores are known as Virtual Shopping Malls. helps online shoppers make the ideal decision on shopping online. That is their mission. Security Measures Definition These are steps taken to protect information and information systems from unauthorized users, access, disclosure disruption, modification and destruction. Security measures are meant to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Tesco has securing tags on its products. This is due to the rise of shoplifting caused by the economic crisis in the country. This was decided by the management team. Many UK businesses whether big or small, depend greatly on American District Telegraph (ADT) or simply ADT, Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and Digital Video Recorders (DVR) as a source of integrated electronic security system. Tesco is one of those convenience supermarkets that depend highly on the services provided by the above security systems. These security systems provide fast alarm responses to burglary, fire attacks, violence and unnecessary disturbances in Tesco. These security systems reduce a safe and convenient environment for Tesco customers. They help reduce crime wave, protect people and property. Tesco also applies the use of security codes in their online services. This is to ensure that the online customer placing the order is actually in possession of a credit/ Debit card and that the amount of money in the card is legitimate. All these procedures is to prevent Credit/ Debit card fraud Also to trace and track down thieves who are in possessions of other peoples cards through well advance information technology. BMT Micro security software makes sures no database after online transaction is stored during online payment so hackers will not find their way easily into peoples accounts. That is why codes are needed so is will be hard for them to trace. Card Security Code (CSC) or Card Verification Value is another security feature for credit/debit transaction online providing online security against fraudulent cards. Recommended information security. Unified Threat Management (UTM), this is to prevent intruders and softwares from affecting Tesco delicate networks less the loose their data informations. Antivirus is also needed to check Tesco computers for the presence of virus that may crash the computers and loss database information that have not yet been processed. These antivirus needs constant updates. . Cloud Computing Cloud computing is the latest internet base computer system whereby shared resources such as softwares and information are provided to computers. It describes a new suppliement, consumption and delivery Information Technology model services based on the internet. It helps provides easy access to remote computing site provide by the internet. It is a less expensive form of computing. It avoids capital expenditures on hardwares, softwares and services because the pay only provider for they use. Consumption is billed on subscription basis with no upfront cost. Benefits: Low barrier to entry. Share infrastructure and cost Low management overheads Immediate access to a broad range of applications. The contract can be terminated at any time. According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it has become standardized and less expensive. Issues against Cloud Computing. Although cloud computing is a less expensive system of computing, enterprises may pay more on operating expenses. Cloud computing has been highly criticized for its lack of privacy between users and their hosting companies. They hosting companies may monitor at will the communication and data stored in their systems. For example the National Security Agency (NSA) that works with American Telephone and Telgraph (AT T) and Verizon Communications, monitors all their phones which make people insecure for lack of privacy. There is no security in cloud computing but the Cloud Computing Alliance has been form to promote security assurances. Tesco is not using cloud computing services. But they can subscribe for it so as to spend less on information technology system. Conclusion. From the above information, we have seen how important information systems are in the development of an organization as it is being applied at every managerial level in a business. So it is recommended that business owners should continue searching for more advance information systems that will help ease their supply and distribution chain. Recommendations. Information system is the only way for businesses to survive the pressure and competition that they are facing. If there is a any business that has not yet be highly connected to advance information systems, then that business should make a strategic plan about implementing cloud computing for a start because it is less expensive and will help the business save for future unforeseen circumstances. References OBrien, J (1999) Management Information Systems- Manageing Information Systems in the Internet work Enterprise. Boston. Irwin MC Graw-Hill. ISBN 0071123733. Kenneth and Jane Laudon, Managing the Digital Firm, 8th Ed. Kotler, Philip, Keller, Kevin Lane (2006), Marketing Management, 12th edition. Pearson Education. Erik BOHLIN, Stranford L. Levin, Nakil SUNG, Chang-HO YOON (2004) Global Economy and Digital Society. Elsevier , Amsterdam. Nichlas Carr, (2008) Clouds and Storms.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Asian Americans in the Classroom Essay -- Asia Education Stereotypes P

Asian Americans in the Classroom Asians are one of fastest growing minority groups in America today. During this century, various factors at home and abroad have caused people from Asia to immigrate to the United States for better or for worse. Due to these factors, Americans and American teachers, in particular, need to educate themselves and become aware of the Asian American students’ needs in terms of success and happiness. Before beginning my research, I felt I had an easy subject: studying Asian Americans in relation to their education in public schools. How simple! Everyone knows they are smart, hard working, driven to succeed in spite of their nerdish, geeky, non-athletic, broken-English stereotype. Of course they are successful and happy! Why wouldn’t they be? In this research paper, I hope to enlightened those who thought the I did. Like any other minority group, the Asian American has been stereotyped, discriminated, commercialised, propagandised, and packaged in a box with a pretty ribbon around it bearing the tag: Model Minority. Closely related to this concept is the Panethnic Identity. These two issues were indeed the strongest images of the Asian Americans today. How we came about it and how it is affecting student’s will be discussed in detail. A word of caution: It is neither simple nor pretty, as many of the reasons both a result of the Asian and American cultures. First some technicalities: Most of my research focused on the Japanese Americans and Japanese culture. There will be examples that are specific to this particular ethnic group and race. However, due to the lack of articles specifically on Japanese American students and the tendency to study Asian Americans as a group, I ... .... Japanese Americans: The Evolution of a Subculture, Prentice-Hall, 1969. 9. Lee, Robert G. Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture, Temple University Press, 1999. 10. Okimoto, Daniel I. American In Disguise, John Weatherhill Inc, 1971. 11. Nakano, Mei T. Japanese American Women: Three Generations 1890-1990, Mina Press, 1990. 12. Spickard, Paul R. Japanese Americans: The Formation and Transformations of an Ethnic Group, Twayne, 1996. 13. Strong Jr., Edward K. Vocational Aptitudes of Second Generation Japanese in the United States, Stanford University Press, 1933. 14. Yanagisaka, Sylvia Junko Transforming the Past: Tradition and Kinship Among Japanese Americans, Stanford University Press, 1985. 15. Egami, Hatsuye The Evacuation Diary of Hatsuye Egami, Intentional Productions, 1995. 16. Lee, Gus China Boy, Plume, 1994.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Kosinskis Being There and the Existential Anti-Hero Essay -- Being Th

Kosinski's Being There and the Existential Anti-Hero      Ã‚   Critics have referred to Kosinski's Being There as his worst novel.   Perhaps, Kosinski's prosaic style is deceptive in its apparent simplicity (especially when contrasted with The Painted Bird).   "What Kosinski seeks to do," as Welch D. Everman relates, "is to stimulate the reader's recreative and imaginative task by offering only the essentials...Kosinski's style draws the reader into the incident by refusing to allow him to remain passive" (25).   This essay will propose that Being There is a major existential work following in the tradition of Sartre and Camus in which Chance, the main protagonist, mirrors Camus's Mersault in A Happy Death and in which Koskinski demonstrates the logical progression of the existential anti-hero.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An initial response to Being There often might be to focus upon the text as a type of Creation anecdote, or as a social satire, or perhaps as a political critique against mass media and the television generation.   While all of these readings are legitimate, it seems that the starting point should center on Kosinski's protagonist, Chance, in order to understand the universal significance of the portrayal of Chance, and implicitly the reader, as victim.   Chance is a contemporary innocent.   Whether, as is often argued, he is mentally challenged or not is irrelevant.   Rather, Chance simply exists.   He watches television, is unable or unwilling to function within prescribed cultural paradigms, and finally, is simply a mirror, reflecting back to others sublimated images of desires projected onto him.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Chance is the American Everyman.   The events which befall him could befall anyone.   He, like all of us, ha... ...en, David.   Camus.   Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1988.    Works Consulted Bruss, Paul.   Victims.   Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 1981. Camus, Albert.   The Stranger.   New York: Vintage, 1946. Granofsky, Ronald.   "Circle and Line: Modern and Postmodern Constructs of the Self in Jerzy Kosinski's The Painted Bird."   Essays in Literature 18.2 (1991): 254-68. Griffiths, Gareth.   "Being there, being There: Postmodernism and Post-Colonialism: Kosinski and Malouf."   Ariel 20.4 (1989): 132-48. Grigbsy, John L.   "Mirroring of America and Russia: Reflections of Tolstoy in Jerzy Kosinski's Being There."   Notes on Contemporary Literature 17.4 (1987): 6-8. Kosinski, Jerzy.   The Painted Bird.   New York: Bantam, 1978. Lavers, Norman.   Jerzy Kosinski.   Boston: Twayne, 1982. Piwinski, David J.   "Kosinski's The Painted Bird."   The Explicator 40.1 (1981): 62-3.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Negative Effects of Social Media Essay

Social media has had made many impacts on society. Any website that allows social interaction is considered a social media site (Schurgin O’Keeffe, Clarke-Pearson). Due to the new technology taking over, social media has been easier than ever to get a hold of by the applications that have been made for portable devices. Through these devices and applications, being socially connected has made it easier to communicate with each other. Unfortunately, it all hasn’t been positive communications. There are many negative effects of social media, the biggest being addiction and self esteem. The definition of an addiction according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is: an unusually great interest in something or a need to do or have something (addiction). While social media addiction is not clinically diagnosed at this point, the behavior displayed and language of the students use suggests that society is not that far from becoming physically dependant on mobile devices (Westfa ll). With the new technologies right at the fingertips of society and easy access to check the newsfeed of the word, addiction to social media is on the rise. There are many factors that classify someone as an addict in different parts of the world. According to psychology professor and author Larry Rosen, â€Å"Social media addicts spend most of their waking moments checking for updates, chatting in instant messaging rooms, posting updates and checking their friend’s latest postings. Even when they delete their accounts, they usually are driven to make new accounts within twenty-four hours† (Gabriel). Some cases of addiction to social media are not as severe as others. In some extreme cases there are symptoms that can be observed. These symptoms include: spending at least four hours per day using social media, canceling more and more activities with family, friends or coworkers, bringing cell phones or other internet capable devices into the bathroom, and feeling anxi ous when you cannot get onto the internet. Once the individual has gotten involved in networking sites, things can escalate quickly. One reason these sites are so addictive is that there is a nonstop stream of messages, photos, updates and information coming from those in the network. If you have ten friends, it should not be a problem keeping up with them. If an individual’s network is one hundred friends or more, the individual might end up online for hours  every day, trying to check all of the updates. Trading messages back and forth with other members, the individual might find himself or herself even more caught up in the exchange, just as it would be in a normal conversation. see more:speech on social networking Social networking sites are meant to be casual, relaxed ways to connect with others. If you start losing sleep or are unable to concentrate because you’re always thinking about going online to check your friends’ statuses, then that is a sign of trouble. Social media has become an addiction to people because it is a form, or a way, to escape reality. It is also a way that someone can create their own cyber reality (Cosper). According to an associate professor in a program of science, technology, and society, Natasha Schull states, â€Å"Online games and social networking sites use psychological principles to keep you hooked† . Recent study shows that online dependency is not so different from a physical addiction. â€Å"MRI scans of patients checking their social media feed and those using cocaine look exactly the same,† says Schull. Most addictions begin as a harmless satisfaction of needs and desires; checking a few media sites stimulates those pleasure centers in the brain (Jensen). Another reason these sites are so addictive is that they provide outlets for when you are feeling down. People post fewer negative than positive updates on networking sites. They might mention trips they have taken or new cars, but they will rarely mention when they get poor grades or if they gained twenty pounds. If the individual’s own â€Å"real† life is not going so great, they can always go online and pretend it to be better. This in most cases, is how depression from social media usage is started. It is easy for someone to lose himself or herself in what experts say, â€Å"happyland† and forget about the hurdles in everyday life (Bocco). With new studies there has been known to be at least ten different types of social media addiction. A few of these types of addiction are: â€Å"The Alert-Lover†, â€Å"The Social Guru†, â€Å" The Verb Creator†, â€Å"The Blog Referencer†, â€Å"The Multi-Mayorâ € , and â€Å"The Freak Out-er† (Laird). Just like any other addiction, social media addiction is a disease. Social media addiction can become a destructive compulsive habit which as with any addiction can lead to broken relationships, job loss, and even financial issues. Individuals addicted to social media often feel anxiety or even may feel physically ill if not able to connect to the internet or their favorite social media sites. Evidence suggests that that the typical addict is  usually a teenager, usually male, and has no social life outside of their computer and or mobile devices. Though this is not truefor all. This disease has been known to affect millions of people all over the world. The most important being the â€Å"constant checker† and the â€Å"vowel hater† (Laird). In today’s world, checking social media on a regular basis can be easier than ever before. For some, this great access is not all that great. Those people are known as the â€Å" constant checkers†. They feel the need to check their handheld devices on a regular basis to feel up-to-date on the newest news that they may have missed, in what they may feel, has been a very long time. A study done by the University of California suggests that on average, study subjects check their mobile devices thirty-five times out of habit. It was also shown that nearly eighty- eight percent of teenagers and young adults check their news feed before even getting out of their bed in the morning. Through this study those subjects then realized that they were losing the relationship s that they have had with the people closest to them because they were being annoying. Some, but not all, of those studied admitted to having a physical attachment to their mobile devices and having withdrawls when taken away. Lisa Merlo, a psychologist at the University of Florida, says, â€Å"If you hear ‘put the phone away’ more than once a day, you probably have a problem† (Cohen). Another type of social media addiction is being a â€Å"vowel hater†. These people are known to take out every vowel possible in order to save time and space in either a text message or posting onto any form of social media site. This addiction has been known to alter all parts of the individual’s specific speech. It alters their speech in regular conversation and those electronically. From it leaking into the regular everyday conversation it can cause confusion to those around. Some may not know all the up to date slang terms that are used in instant messaging and so cial media. The same is for electronic messaging. This could be email or instant messaging on a media site. The most common type of people that this kind of addiction has been found is the younger generation. This is the age group of those from the age thirty to seventeen. It has been found that the younger the individual the more vowels are taken out of each word in each sentence. Some of the most noticeable symptoms of being a †vowel hater† is when posting on a social media site, such as Twitter, they are known for dropping vowels just to reach the one hundred forty character  limit (Hivesocial). Like any other disease there are a variety of treatment options. These treatment option vary from AA type meetings to meetings that can be held via webcam, other instant messaging alternatives or sometimes even a therapist. Unlike drug or alcohol addiction there will be no physical side effects from lowering your usage and stopping completely. The individual will be battling behaviors that have built up over time so it will be difficult to cut back on social media time. However, it is extremely doable. One of the first steps in addiction treatment is the individual must admit to himself or herself that there is a problem. Once the problem is recognized it is best that the subject take note on which kind of social media or technology that are addicted to. This may be hard for the individual for they in most cases, do not realize that they are checking their mobile devices and social media sites. Therapy can give the individual a tremendous boost in controlling internet use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy provides step-by-step ways to stop compulsive internet behaviors and change the individual’s perceptions regarding internet, mobile phone, and computer use. Therapy can also help you learn healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotions, such as stress, anxiety, or depression. Joining a support group is also another great way to help the addict make them feel like they are not alone. Ironically, some of these support groups are online which may not be too supportive to those who have a heavy addiction. Which in some cases should be monitored carefully (Sherwood). Research from the University of Buffalo indicates that women who base their self worth on their appearance are likely to post more pictures of themselves online for validation and to have larger social media networks (Henderson). Positive comments on social media can and do boost self esteem. Some people get a boost of healthy self esteem and get ego driven self love based on how many â€Å"Likes† they get on a social media site. Everyone wants to feel worthy of love and belonging. In some ways, the â€Å"Likes† we get on social media sites satisfies this need in almost a distorted way. Perhaps we are looking for love, or †Likes† in all the wrong places. According to lead author Elliot Panek, â€Å"Among young college students, we found that those who scored higher in certain types of self worth posted more often on Twitter. But among middle- aged adults from the general population, those that had more self love posted more frequent status updates on Facebook† (Bergland).  Fac ebook serves self loved adults as a mirror. As for a middle- aged adult, these findings of the difference between Facebook and Twitter may be influenced by a generation technology gap. Panek says of Facebook, â€Å"It is about creating your own image, how you are seen, and also checking on how others respond to this image.† Many middle-aged adults have already formed their social selves. They use social media to gain approval from those who are already in their social circle. For some self loved college students, the social media is a tool for them in helping them reach there wanted social standings (Bergland). Along with being addicted and having a low self esteem there is yet another negative effect of social media, cyberbullying. Access to electronic devices like smartphones that capture photos, videos and have the ability to upload to video sites or be sent through a mass messages within seconds mean the bullying never ends. Reports of teens recording fights, sexual assaults and more have been in the news with several being caught after sharing it on their Facebook pages. There are even sites dedicated to publishing and promoting teen fight videos which does not warrant a link. Teens already dealing with the pressures of fitting in now have to fear being targeted by bullies, who can easily smear their reputation with a few clicks of the mouse. The most dangerous part is this content lives on well after the damage is done, a daily reminder to the victim. Most commonly cyberbullying is found on chat sites and social media that has had a huge boom within ten years or less such as Facebook. MySpace, LinkedIn and Twitter. It is easier for the bullier to pick on their victim because they are not talking to them di rectly. In fact, in almost all cases it is not face to face but rather, typed, hateful words. Saying hurtful words is not the only form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying can also be done through impersonation. Impersonation means that the person does not even have to know the individual that is bullying them. These types of online harassments should not be taken lightly. Many teens and even professionals have been known to quit what they love or even in severe cases, have committed suicide. On average, those that are bullied tend to all have the same or nearly the same symptoms. Those symptoms include: skipping school, experience in-person bullying, be unwilling to attend school, receive poor grades, have lower self-esteem, have more health problems, and the used of alcohol and drugs. Cyberbullying is different from any other kind of  bullying because it can reach the individual at any time of the day, any time of the week (Social Media Makes Cyberbullying More Dangerous). Granted, not all cyberbullying is no all done on Facebook, but since the social networking site is so popular among tweens and teenagers everywhere, it is a regular source of problems. Nearly half of all teenagers in the United States have experienced some online bullying, according to statistics from the National Crime Prevention Council. Twenty percent of middle school students said they have seriously thought about suicide due to online bullying, according to a recent survey conducted by the Cyberbullying Research Center (Levine). It doesn’t take a scientist to figure out that victims of cyberbullying have lower self-esteem than those who have not experienced it. On the other hand, research has also surprisingly shown that the actual cyberbullying offenders have lower self-esteem than their peers. It would seem that when it comes to bullying, everyone loses. Since low self-esteem has been linked in many studies to poor grades in school, health issues, excessive absences, and crimin al behavior, it would be in everyone’s best interest to take steps to shut bullying down early on. Addiction and self esteem are some of the many negative effects of social media. In review, addiction not only hurts the individual but also how the individual acts and may participate in events. Not only does it hurt them but it also hurts the relationships that they are in. This includes family, friends and co-workers. Addiction also can play a role in how they treat people on a day to day basis. From being addicted to social media the individual can start to lose their sense of how to communicate with others face to face. Luckily, with this understudied addiction there are treatment options that are beginning to take place for those that would like to take a stand on their addiction. Self esteem is also a negative factor in social media today. Those individuals that have a higher and possibly lower self esteem tend to post more online than those that do not. This is dependant on how much self worth an individual may have for him or her self. Some people keep posting online just he lp themselves boost their self esteem because they may have a hardship outside of the â€Å"cyberworld.† In that case, for some the only way to boost their self esteem is to cyber bully others. Impersonation is one of the more common types of cyberbullying because the individual does not have to know the victim on a personal level or even at all. 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